The 'Gentlemen's' Agreement - Exclusion by Class

Cullinane, Michael (2014) The 'Gentlemen's' Agreement - Exclusion by Class. Immigrants and Minorities, 32 (2). pp. 139-161. ISSN 02619288

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02619288.2013.860688

Abstract

The 1907 Gentlemen's Agreement - promoted by President Theodore Roosevelt - was a US immigration policy that established restrictions on Japanese labour. The policy came at a time of growing tension over Asian immigration to the west coast of the USA as well as to Canada and Mexico. The Agreement is often interpreted as an act of racial discrimination and exclusion. Undoubtedly, racial discrimination played a role in stoking and instigating American opinions over immigration in the early twentieth century. However, this article seeks to explain how the Gentlemen's Agreement was not an act of exclusion from the perspective of Theodore Roosevelt. The article contends that Roosevelt's initiative in the immigration policy was, instead, to exclude the Japanese based on class. In fact, this analysis of the Gentlemen's Agreement contends that the 26th president was particularly mindful of Japanese rights and the effect immigration would have on international diplomacy.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Published online 6-1-14 ahead of print
Uncontrolled Keywords: foreign policy; immigration; Japan; Theodore Roosevelt
Subjects: V300 History by topic
Department: Faculties > Arts, Design and Social Sciences > School of Arts and Social Sciences > Humanities
Depositing User: Becky Skoyles
Date Deposited: 15 Jan 2015 12:05
Last Modified: 10 Aug 2015 11:01
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/20932

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