The Weak Probability of Punishment for Environmental Offenses and Deterrence of Environmental Offenders: A Discussion Based on USEPA Criminal Cases, 1983–2013

Lynch, Michael, Barrett, Kimberly, Stretesky, Paul and Long, Michael (2016) The Weak Probability of Punishment for Environmental Offenses and Deterrence of Environmental Offenders: A Discussion Based on USEPA Criminal Cases, 1983–2013. Deviant Behavior, 37 (10). pp. 1095-1109. ISSN 0163-9625

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2016.1161455

Abstract

Numerous studies observe a decrease in environmental crimes following imposition of fines or penalties potentially due to general and specific deterrent effects. Here we explore whether those deterrent effects appear plausible by estimating the probability of a USEPA criminal case occurring each year between 1983 through 2013. Our analysis shows that there is an extremely low probability of an environmental crime case being prosecuted criminally by USEPA, casting doubt that these criminal cases are sufficiently widespread to generate a deterrent effect. We suggested that alternative theoretical orientations and policy initiatives be employed in studying and responding to environmental infractions.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: L300 Sociology
Department: Faculties > Arts, Design and Social Sciences > School of Arts and Social Sciences > Social Sciences & Languages
Depositing User: Becky Skoyles
Date Deposited: 09 Jun 2016 11:15
Last Modified: 12 Dec 2016 11:34
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/27075

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