Vitamin D Activation and Function in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells During TLR-Induced Inflammation

Reins, Rose, Baidouri, Hasna and McDermott, Alison (2015) Vitamin D Activation and Function in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells During TLR-Induced Inflammation. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, 56 (13). pp. 7715-7727. ISSN 1552-5783

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.15-17768

Abstract

Purpose: Vitamin D is recognized to be an important modulator of the immune system. In the eye, studies have shown that deficiencies and genetic differences in vitamin D–related genes have a significant impact on the development of various ocular diseases. Our current study examines the ability of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) to activate vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D treatment on antimicrobial peptide production and cytokine modulation during inflammation, with the ultimate goal of using vitamin D therapeutically for corneal inflammation.

Methods: Human corneal epithelial cells were treated with 10−7M vitamin D3 (D3) or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3) for 24 hours and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) detected by immunoassay. Human cathelicidin (LL-37) expression was examined by RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunostaining following 1,25D3 treatment and antimicrobial activity of 1,25D3-treated cells was determined. Cells were stimulated with TLR3 agonist polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly[I:C]) for 24 hours and cytokine levels measured by RT-PCR, ELISA, and Luminex. Immunostaining determined expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid inducible gene-1 receptor (RIG-1) as well as NF-κB nuclear translocation.

Results: When treated with inactive vitamin D metabolites, HCEC produced active 1,25D3, leading to enhanced expression of the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, dependent on VDR. 1,25-D3 decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and CCL20) and MMP-9 induced by Poly(I:C) as well as pattern recognition receptor expression (TLR3, RIG-1, MDA5). However, early activation of NF-κB was not affected.

Conclusions: These studies demonstrate the protective ability of vitamin D to attenuate proinflammatory mediators while increasing antimicrobial peptides and antipseudomonas activity in corneal cells, and further our knowledge on the immunomodulatory functions of the hormone.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: vitamin D, cornea, inflammation, Toll-like receptors, antimicrobial
Subjects: B500 Ophthalmics
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Applied Sciences
Depositing User: Becky Skoyles
Date Deposited: 19 May 2017 15:30
Last Modified: 24 Oct 2017 11:24
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/30778

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