Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Glial Cells: Implications for Neuronal Homeostasis and Survival

Rose, Jordan, Brian, Christian, Woods, Jade, Pappa, Aglaia, Panagiotidis, Mihalis, Powers, Robert and Franco, Rodrigo (2017) Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Glial Cells: Implications for Neuronal Homeostasis and Survival. Toxicology. ISSN 0300-483X (In Press)

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2017.06.011

Abstract

Mitochondrial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Neurons rely on oxidative phosphorylation to meet their energy requirements and thus alterations in mitochondrial function are linked to energy failure and neuronal cell death. Furthermore, dysfunctional mitochondria are reported to increase the steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species derived from the leakage of electrons from the electron transport chain. Research aimed at understanding mitochondrial dysfunction and its role in neurological disorders has been primarily geared towards neurons. In contrast, the role that dysfunctional mitochondria have in glial cells’ function and its implication for neuronal homeostasis and brain function has been largely understudied. Except for oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia do not degenerate upon the impairment of mitochondrial function, as they rely primarily on glycolysis to produce energy and have a higher antioxidant capacity than neurons. However, recent evidence highlights the role of mitochondrial metabolism and signaling in glial cell function. In this work, we review the functional role of mitochondria in glial cells and the evidence regarding its potential role regulating neuronal homeostasis and disease progression.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: PMID: 28655545
Uncontrolled Keywords: Astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, mitochondria, glycolysis, free fatty acid oxidation, calcium, redox, inflammation
Subjects: C700 Molecular Biology, Biophysics and Biochemistry
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Applied Sciences
Depositing User: Ay Okpokam
Date Deposited: 12 Jul 2017 08:56
Last Modified: 28 Oct 2017 14:02
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/31341

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