The Cellular Diversity of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus

Pienaar, Ilse, Vernon, Anthony and Winn, Philip (2017) The Cellular Diversity of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus. The Neuroscientist, 23 (4). pp. 415-431. ISSN 1073-8584

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1177/1073858416682471

Abstract

The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a rostral brainstem structure that has extensive connections with basal ganglia nuclei and the thalamus. Through these the PPN contributes to neural circuits that effect cortical and hippocampal activity. The PPN also has descending connections to nuclei of the pontine and medullary reticular formations, deep cerebellar nuclei, and the spinal cord. Interest in the PPN has increased dramatically since it was first suggested to be a novel target for treating patients with Parkinson’s disease who are refractory to medication. However, application of frequency-specific electrical stimulation of the PPN has produced inconsistent results. A central reason for this is that the PPN is not a heterogeneous structure. In this article, we review current knowledge of the neurochemical identity and topographical distribution of neurons within the PPN of both humans and experimental animals, focusing on studies that used neuronally selective targeting strategies to ascertain how the neurochemical heterogeneity of the PPN relates to its diverse functions in relation to movement and cognitive processes. If the therapeutic potential of the PPN is to be realized, it is critical to understand the complex structure-function relationships that exist here.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: cognition, comparative anatomy, sleep, motor functions, neurotoxins, pedunculopontine
Subjects: B100 Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > School of Life Sciences > Applied Sciences
Depositing User: Ay Okpokam
Date Deposited: 31 Jul 2017 15:22
Last Modified: 31 Jul 2017 15:57
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/31454

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