Pareidolia-proneness, reality discrimination errors, and visual hallucination-like experiences in a non-clinical sample

Smailes, David, Burdis, Emma, Gregoriou, Constantina, Fenton, Bryony and Dudley, Rob (2020) Pareidolia-proneness, reality discrimination errors, and visual hallucination-like experiences in a non-clinical sample. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 25 (2). pp. 113-125. ISSN 1354-6805

[img] Text
AAM_Pareidolia_proneness_reality_discrimination_errors_and_visual_hallucination_like_experiences.pdf - Accepted Version
Restricted to Repository staff only until 6 December 2020.

Download (638kB) | Request a copy
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2019.1700789

Abstract

Introduction: It has been proposed that hallucinations occur because of problems with reality discrimination (when internal, self-generated cognitions are misattributed to an external, non-self source) and because of elevated levels of top-down processing. In this study, we examined whether visual reality discrimination abilities and elevated top-down processing (assessed via face pareidolia-proneness) were associated with how often non-clinical participants report visual hallucination-like experiences. Methods: Participants (N = 82, mean age = 23.12 years) completed a visual reality discrimination task and a face pareidolia task, as well as self-report measures of schizotypy and of the frequency of visual hallucination-like experiences. Results: Regression analysis demonstrated that the number of false alarms made on the visual reality discrimination task and the number of hits made on the face pareidolia task were independent predictors of the frequency of visual hallucination-like experiences. Correlations between performance on the tasks and levels of schizotypy were not statistically significant. Conclusions: These findings suggest that weaker visual reality discrimination abilities and elevated levels of top-down processing are associated with visual hallucination-proneness and are discussed in terms of the idea that clinical visual hallucinations and non-clinical visual hallucination-like experiences share similar cognitive mechanisms.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pareidolia, reality discrimination, signal detection, visual hallucinations
Subjects: C800 Psychology
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Psychology
Depositing User: Elena Carlaw
Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2020 15:28
Last Modified: 11 Mar 2020 16:15
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/41864

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics