Modelling reef hydrodynamics and sediment mobility under sea level rise in atoll reef island systems

East, Holly, Perry, Chris T., Beetham, Eddie P., Kench, Paul S. and Liang, Yiqing (2020) Modelling reef hydrodynamics and sediment mobility under sea level rise in atoll reef island systems. Global and Planetary Change, 192. p. 103196. ISSN 0921-8181

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2020.103196

Abstract

Low-lying coral reef islands will be significantly impacted by future sea level rise (SLR). It is generally expected that SLR will destabilise reef islands because increasing reef submergence allows larger waves, and therefore greater energy transmission, across reef flats. However, the impact of SLR on altering both reef flat sediment transport and sediment delivery to island shorelines is poorly understood. Here, we use the currents of removal approach (coupling two-dimensional wave modelling with settling velocity data from 186 benthic sediment samples) to model shifts in both reef hydrodynamics and benthic sediment transport under scenarios of mean reef submergence (MRS = +0 m, +0.5 m, +1 m) at two atoll rim reef sites in the Maldives. Under contemporary conditions (MRS = +0 m), we found that benthic sediment transport is likely occurring, consistent with active reef-to-island sediment connectivity. Under conditions of increased MRS, shifts in wave velocities, and in turn sediment potential mobility, were both non-linear and non-uniform. Significant between-site differences were found in the magnitude of projected shifts in sediment mobility under scenarios of increased MRS, which implies that morphological responses to increases in MRS are likely to be diverse, even over local scales. Under increased MRS, the largest increases in sediment mobility were projected on the inner reef flat, whereas lagoonal zones remained as sinks for sediment deposition. We thus hypothesize that while reef islands will persist as sedimentary landforms under projected rates of MRS, lagoonward reef island migration is likely to occur. Findings have implications for predicting the future adaptive capacity of atoll nations. The challenge is to incorporate such potential increases in island mobility and intra-regional diversity in reef system geomorphic responses to sea level rise into national-scale vulnerability assessments.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Reef islands, Sea level rise, Waves, Hydrodynamics, Sediment transport, Maldives.
Subjects: F700 Ocean Sciences
F800 Physical and Terrestrial Geographical and Environmental Sciences
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Geography and Environmental Sciences
Depositing User: Elena Carlaw
Date Deposited: 27 May 2020 11:58
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2020 11:15
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/43256

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