Singlemode-Multimode-Singlemode Fiber Structures for Sensing Applications – A Review

Wu, Qiang, Qu, Yuwei, Liu, Juan, Yuan, Jinhui, Wan, Sheng-Peng, Wu, Tao, He, Xing-Dao, Liu, Bin, Liu, Dejun, Ma, Youqia, Semenova, Yuliya, Wang, Pengfei, Xin, Xiangjun and Farrell, Gerald (2021) Singlemode-Multimode-Singlemode Fiber Structures for Sensing Applications – A Review. IEEE Sensors Journal, 21 (11). pp. 12734-12751. ISSN 1530-437X

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2020.3039912

Abstract

A singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber structure consists of a short section of multimode fiber fusion-spliced between two SMS fibers. The mechanism underpinning the operation of an SMS fiber structure is multimode interference and associated self-imaging. SMS structures can be used in a variety of optical fiber systems but are most commonly used as sensors for a variety of parameters, ranging from macro-world measurands such as temperature, strain, vibration, flow rate, RI and humidity to the micro-world with measurands such as proteins, pathogens, DNA, and specific molecules. While traditional SMS structures employ a short section of standard multimode fiber, a large number of structures have been investigated and demonstrated over the last decade involving the replacement of the multimode fiber section with alternatives such as a hollow core fiber or a tapered fiber. The objective of replacing the multimode fiber has most often been to allow sensing of different measurands or to improve sensitivity. In this paper, several different categories of SMS fiber structures, including traditional SMS, modified SMS and tapered SMS fiber structures are discussed with some theoretical underpinning and reviews of a wide variety of sensing examples and recent advances. The paper then summarizes and compares the performances of a variety of sensors which have been published under a number of headings. The paper concludes by considering the challenges faced by SMS based sensing schemes in terms of their deployment in real world applications and discusses possible future developments of SMS fiber sensors.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: This work was supported in part by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province under Grant 20192ACB20031, Grant 20192ACBL21051, and Grant 20202ACBL202002; in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 62065013, Grant 61665007, and Grant 61465009; and in part by the Major Discipline Academic and Technical Leaders Training Program of Jiangxi Province, China, under Grant 20172BCB22012.
Uncontrolled Keywords: SMS, multimode interference, biosensor, chemical sensor, thin-core fiber, small-core fiber, no-core fiber, hollow core fiber, fiber interferometer
Subjects: H600 Electronic and Electrical Engineering
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: John Coen
Date Deposited: 16 Nov 2020 11:14
Last Modified: 02 Jul 2021 10:29
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/44762

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