Analysis of various transport modes to evaluate personal exposure to PM2.5 pollution in Delhi

Maji, Kamal, Namdeo, Anil, Hoban, Dan, Bell, Margaret, Goodman, Paul, Nagendra, S.M. Shiva, Barnes, Jo, De Vito, Laura, Hayes, Enda, Longhurst, James, Kumar, Rakesh, Sharma, Niraj, Kuppili, Sudheer Kumar and Alshetty, Dheeraj (2021) Analysis of various transport modes to evaluate personal exposure to PM2.5 pollution in Delhi. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 12 (2). pp. 417-431. ISSN 1309-1042

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2020.12.003

Abstract

Access to detailed comparisons of the air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants, in this case, PM2.5 inhaled during rickshaw, bus, metro, non-air-conditioned car, air-conditioned (AC) car and walking journeys through the city of Delhi, India. The data collection was carried out using a portable TSI SidePak Aerosol Monitor AM520, during February 2018. The results demonstrate that rickshaws (266 ± 159 μg/m3) and walking (259 ± 102 μg/m3) modes were exposed to significantly higher mean PM2.5 levels, whereas AC cars (89 ± 30 μg/m3) and the metro (72 ± 11 μg/m3) had the lowest overall exposure rates. Buses (113 ± 14 μg/m3) and non-AC cars (149 ± 13 μg/m3) had average levels of exposure, but open windows and local factors caused surges in PM2.5 for both transport modes. Closed air-conditioned transport modes were shown to be the best modes for avoiding high concentrations of PM2.5, however other factors (e.g. time of the day, window open or closed in the vehicles) affected exposure levels significantly. Overall, the highest total respiratory deposition doses (RDDs) values were estimated as 84.7 ± 33.4 μg/km, 15.8 ± 9.5 μg/km and 9.7 ± 0.9 μg/km for walking, rickshaw and non-AC car transported mode of journey, respectively. Unless strong pollution control measures are taken, the high exposure to PM2.5 levels will continue causing serious short-term and long-term health concerns for the Delhi residents. Implementing integrated and intelligent transport systems and educating commuters on ways to reduce exposure levels and impacts on commuter's health are required.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: This work was part of the Clean Air for Delhi Through Interventions, Mitigations, and Engagement (CADTIME) study supported by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC ref: NE/P016588/1) and the Indian Ministry of Earth Sciences (MOES). This work uses data downloaded from the public-facing portal for automatic air-quality monitoring of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Personal exposure, Travel modes, Air pollution, PM2.5, Delhi
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Geography and Environmental Sciences
Depositing User: Ellen Cole
Date Deposited: 17 Dec 2020 14:52
Last Modified: 17 Feb 2021 17:15
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/45038

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