Void Avoidance Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Mhemed, Rogaia, Comeau, Frank, Phillips, William and Aslam, Nauman (2021) Void Avoidance Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors, 21 (6). p. 1942. ISSN 1424-3210

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/s21061942

Abstract

Much attention has been focused lately on the Opportunistic Routing technique (OR) that can overcome the restrictions of the harsh underwater environment and the unique structures of the Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs). OR enhances the performance of the UWSNs in both packet delivery ratio and energy saving. In our work; we propose a new routing protocol; called Energy Efficient Depth-based Opportunistic Routing with Void Avoidance for UWSNs (EEDOR-VA), to address the void area problem. EEDOR-VA is a reactive OR protocol that uses a hop count discovery procedure to update the hop count of the intermediate nodes between the source and the destination to form forwarding sets. EEDOR-VA forwarding sets can be selected with less or greater depth than the packet holder (i.e., source or intermediate node). It efficiently prevents all void/trapped nodes from being part of the forwarding sets and data transmission procedure; thereby saving network resources and delivering data packets at the lowest possible cost. The results of our extensive simulation study indicate that the EEDOR-VA protocol outperforms other protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs); Opportunistic Routing (OR); void node; hop count; energy consumption; Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR)
Subjects: G400 Computer Science
G500 Information Systems
G600 Software Engineering
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Computer and Information Sciences
Depositing User: Elena Carlaw
Date Deposited: 10 Mar 2021 10:27
Last Modified: 31 May 2021 14:40
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/45661

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