Analysing Normative Influences on the Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting among 0–14 Years Old Girls in Senegal: A Spatial Bayesian Hierarchical Regression Approach

Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin, Nnanatu, Chibuzor Christopher, Atilola, Glory, Komba, Paul, Mavatikua, Lubanzadio, Moore, Zhuzhi and Matanda, Dennis (2021) Analysing Normative Influences on the Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting among 0–14 Years Old Girls in Senegal: A Spatial Bayesian Hierarchical Regression Approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18 (7). p. 3822. ISSN 1660-4601

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073822

Abstract

Background: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice affecting the health and rights of women and girls. This has raised global attention on the implementation of strategies to eliminate the practice in conformity with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). A recent study on the trends of FGM/C among Senegalese women (aged 15–49) which examined how individual- and community-level factors affected the practice, found significant regional variations in the practice. However, the dynamics of the practice among girls (0–14 years old) is not fully understood. This paper attempts to fill this knowledge gap by investigating normative influences in the persistence of the practice among Senegalese girls, identify and map ‘hotspots’. Methods: We do so by using a class of Bayesian hierarchical geospatial modelling approach implemented in R statistical software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) using R2BayesX package. We employed Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques for full Bayesian inference, while model fit and complexity assessment utilised deviance information criterion (DIC). Results: We found that a girl’s probability of cutting was higher if her mother was cut, supported FGM/C continuation or believed that the practice was a religious obligation. In addition, living in rural areas and being born to a mother from Diola, Mandingue, Soninke or Poular ethnic group increased a girl’s likelihood of being cut. The hotspots identified included Matam, Tambacounda and Kolda regions. Conclusions: Our findings offer a clearer picture of the dynamics of FGM/C practice among Senegalese girls and prove useful in informing evidence-based intervention policies designed to achieve the abandonment of the practice in Senegal.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: This research was funded by the DELTAS Africa Initiative SSACAB [grant #DEL-15-005]. The DELTAS Africa Initiative is an independent funding scheme of the African Academy of Sciences (AAS)’s Alliance for Accelerating Excellence in Science in Africa (AESA) and supported by the New Partnership for Africa’s Development Planning and Coordinating Agency (NEPAD Agency) with funding from the Wellcome Trust [grant #107754/Z/15/Z] and the UK government. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of AAS, NEPAD Agency, Wellcome Trust or the UK government’.
Uncontrolled Keywords: FGM/C; spatial analysis; bayesian hierarchical modelling; social norms
Subjects: B100 Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology
B900 Others in Subjects allied to Medicine
G100 Mathematics
G300 Statistics
L300 Sociology
L500 Social Work
L700 Human and Social Geography
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Elena Carlaw
Date Deposited: 07 Apr 2021 10:49
Last Modified: 07 Apr 2021 11:35
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/45874

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