A 2x2 randomised factorial SWAT of the use of a pen and small, financial incentive to improve recruitment rates in a randomised controlled trial of yoga for older adults with multimorbidity

Fairhurst, Caroline, Roche, Jenny, Bissell, Laura, Hewitt, Catherine, Hugill-Jones, Jess, Howsam, Jenny, Maturana, Camila, Corbacho Martin, Belen, Paul, Shirley-Anne, Rose, Fi, Torgerson, David, Ward, Lesley, Wiley, Laura and Tew, Garry (2021) A 2x2 randomised factorial SWAT of the use of a pen and small, financial incentive to improve recruitment rates in a randomised controlled trial of yoga for older adults with multimorbidity. F1000Research, 10. p. 326. ISSN 2046-1402

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.52164.1

Abstract

Background: 2x2 factorial ‘study within a trial’ evaluating the effectiveness of including a pen and/or £5 with a postal recruitment pack to increase randomisation rates (primary outcome) into the host Gentle Years Yoga trial in older adults with multimorbidity.
Methods: Secondary outcomes were the return, and time to return, of a screening form, and the cost per additional participant recruited. Binary data were analysed using logistic regression and time to return data using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Results: 818 potential host trial participants were included. Between those sent a pen (n=409) and those not sent a pen (n=409), there was no evidence of a difference in the likelihood of being randomised (15 (3.7%) vs 11 (2.7%); OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.63 to 3.04), in returning a screening form (n=66 (16.1%) vs n=61 (14.9%); OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.75, 1.61) nor in time to return the screening form (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.77, 1.55). There was evidence of improved screening return rates (77 (18.8%) vs 50 (12.2%); OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.13, 2.45) and time to return screening form (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.09, 2.22) but not randomisation (14 (3.4%) vs 12 (2.9%); OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.54, 2.57) in those sent £5 (n=409) compared with those not sent £5 (n=409). No significant interaction effects between the interventions were observed. The cost per additional participant recruited was £32 for the pen and £1000 for the £5 incentive.
Conclusion: Including a small, monetary incentive encouraged increased and faster response to the recruitment invitation but did not result in more participants being randomised into the host trial. Since it is relatively costly, we do not recommend this intervention for use to increase recruitment in this population. Pens are cheaper but did not provide evidence of benefit. Further studies may be required.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: The GYY trial and SWATs were funded by the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) through the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme, open call project number 17/94/36. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Uncontrolled Keywords: study within a trial, pen, financial incentive, recruitment, factorial, randomised controlled trial, older people, multimorbidity
Subjects: B900 Others in Subjects allied to Medicine
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation
Depositing User: John Coen
Date Deposited: 20 Apr 2021 10:35
Last Modified: 21 Jun 2021 14:15
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/45959

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