The Significance of Demographic Variables on Psychosocial Health from the Early Stage and Nine Months after the COVID-19 Pandemic Outbreak. A Cross-National Study

Geirdal, Amy K. Østertun, Price, Daicia, Schoultz, Mariyana, Thygesen, Hilde, Ruffolo, Mary, Leung, Janni and Bonsaksen, Tore (2021) The Significance of Demographic Variables on Psychosocial Health from the Early Stage and Nine Months after the COVID-19 Pandemic Outbreak. A Cross-National Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18 (8). p. 4345. ISSN 1660-4601

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084345

Abstract

This cross-national study explored stability and change in mental health, quality of life, well-being and loneliness during the early stage and nine months after the implementation of COVID-19 pandemic social distancing measures and periodic lockdowns as adjusted by demographic variables. In the USA, the UK, Australia and Norway, 7284 individuals responded to the invitation to take part in two cross-sectional web-based surveys (April and November 2020), including questions about sociodemographic variables and psychosocial outcomes. Independent t-tests and generalized linear models (GLM) and estimated marginal means were used to analyze differences between subgroups and countries, multiple linear regression analyses were conducted on the psychosocial outcome measures by demographic variables and time in each country and mean responses presented by time after adjusting for all demographic variables in the model. Age, gender, civil status, education, employment, place of work and living area were all significant factors for psychosocial health across the countries. Differences in mental health, quality of life, well-being and loneliness were found between the countries in both April and November 2020, while time did not contribute to reducing the toll in any of the four countries over the nine-month period.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; psychosocial health; mental health; quality of life; well-being; loneliness; cross-national study
Subjects: B700 Nursing
B900 Others in Subjects allied to Medicine
L500 Social Work
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Nursing, Midwifery and Health
Depositing User: Elena Carlaw
Date Deposited: 22 Apr 2021 08:51
Last Modified: 22 Apr 2021 09:00
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/45979

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