Wheat ATIs: Characteristics and Role in Human Disease

Geisslitz, Sabrina, Shewry, Peter, Brouns, Fred, America, Antoine H. P., Caio, Giacomo Pietro Ismaele, Daly, Matthew, D'Amico, Stefano, De Giorgio, Roberto, Gilissen, Luud, Grausgruber, Heinrich, Huang, Xin, Jonkers, Daisy, Keszthelyi, Daniel, Larré, Colette, Masci, Stefania, Mills, Clare, Møller, Marie Sofie, Sorrells, Mark E., Svensson, Birte, Zevallos Herencia, Victor and Weegels, Peter Louis (2021) Wheat ATIs: Characteristics and Role in Human Disease. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8. p. 667370. ISSN 2296-861X

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.667370

Abstract

Amylase/trypsin-inhibitors (ATIs) comprise about 2–4% of the total wheat grain proteins and may contribute to natural defense against pests and pathogens. However, they are currently among the most widely studied wheat components because of their proposed role in adverse reactions to wheat consumption in humans. ATIs have long been known to contribute to IgE-mediated allergy (notably Bakers' asthma), but interest has increased since 2012 when they were shown to be able to trigger the innate immune system, with attention focused on their role in coeliac disease which affects about 1% of the population and, more recently, in non-coeliac wheat sensitivity which may affect up to 10% of the population. This has led to studies of their structure, inhibitory properties, genetics, control of expression, behavior during processing, effects on human adverse reactions to wheat and, most recently, strategies to modify their expression in the plant using gene editing. We therefore present an integrated account of this range of research, identifying inconsistencies, and gaps in our knowledge and identifying future research needs.
Note

This paper is the outcome of an invited international ATI expert meeting held in Amsterdam, February 3-5 2020

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: We are grateful to the Nutrition Committee of the Rank Prize Funds and Stichting Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Limburg (SWOL) for supporting the 1st International ATI expert meeting which led to this article. Rothamsted Research receives grant-aided support from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) of the UK and the work reported here forms part of the Designing Future Wheat Institute Strategic Programme [BB/P016855/1].
Uncontrolled Keywords: wheat, amylase/trypsin-inhibitors, health, pathology, food technology, genetics
Subjects: B400 Nutrition
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Applied Sciences
Depositing User: Elena Carlaw
Date Deposited: 11 Jun 2021 10:34
Last Modified: 11 Jun 2021 10:45
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/46424

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