Self-Medication Practices and Associated Factors in the Prevention and/or Treatment of COVID-19 Virus: A Population-Based Survey in Nigeria

Wegbom, Anthony Ike, Edet, Clement Kevin, Raimi, Olatunde, Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis and Kiri, Victor Alangibi (2021) Self-Medication Practices and Associated Factors in the Prevention and/or Treatment of COVID-19 Virus: A Population-Based Survey in Nigeria. Frontiers in Public Health, 9. p. 606801. ISSN 2296-2565

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.606801

Abstract

Background: The anxiety caused by the emergence of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) globally has made many Nigerians resort to self-medication for purported protection against the disease, amid fear of contracting it from health workers and hospital environments. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the knowledge level, causes, prevalence, and determinants of self-medication practices for the prevention and/or treatment of COVID-19 in Nigeria. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between June and July 2020 among the Nigerian population, using a self-reported questionnaire. Statistical analysis of descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses was done using STATA 15. Results: A total of 461 respondents participated in the survey. Almost all the respondents had sufficient knowledge about self-medication (96.7%). The overall prevalence of self-medication for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 was 41%. The contributing factors were fear of stigmatization or discrimination (79.5%), fear of being quarantine (77.3%), and fear of infection or contact with a suspected person (76.3%). The proximal reasons for self-medication were emergency illness (49.1%), delays in receiving hospital services (28.1%), distance to the health facility (23%), and proximity of the pharmacy (21%). The most commonly used drugs for self-medication were vitamin C and multivitamin (51.8%) and antimalarials (24.9%). These drugs were bought mainly from pharmacies (73.9%). From the multivariable logistic regression model, males (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.07–0.54), and sufficient knowledge on SM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.19–0.77) were significantly associated with self-medication. Conclusion: The key finding of this study was the use of different over-the-counter medications for the prevention (mainly vitamin C and multivitamins) and treatment (antibiotics/antimicrobial) of perceived COVID-19 infection by Nigerians with mainly tertiary education. This is despite their high knowledge and risk associated with self-medication. We suggest that medication outlets, media and community should be engaged to support the rational use of medication.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: knowledge level, self-medication, COVID-19, determinants, Nigeria
Subjects: B200 Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy
B900 Others in Subjects allied to Medicine
T500 African studies
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Rachel Branson
Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2021 10:53
Last Modified: 21 Jun 2021 11:00
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/46495

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