A flexible virtual sensor array based on laser-induced graphene and MXene for detecting volatile organic compounds in human breath

Li, Dongsheng, Shao, Yuzhou, Zhang, Qian, Qu, Mengjiao, Ping, Jianfeng, Fu, Richard and Xie, Jin (2021) A flexible virtual sensor array based on laser-induced graphene and MXene for detecting volatile organic compounds in human breath. Analyst, 146 (18). pp. 5704-5713. ISSN 0003-2654

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1039/D1AN01059J

Abstract

Detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath is critical for the early diagnosis of diseases. Good selectivity of VOC sensors is crucial for the accurate analysis of VOC biomarkers in human breath, which consists of more than 200 types of VOCs. In this paper, a flexible virtual sensor array (FVSA) was proposed based on a sensing layer of MXene and laser-induced graphene interdigital electrodes (LIG-IDEs) for detecting VOCs in exhaled human breath. The fabrication of LIG-IDEs avoids the costly and complicated procedures required for the preparation of traditional IDEs. The FVSA's responses of multiple parameters help build a unique fingerprint for each VOC, without a need for changing the temperature of the sensing element, which is commonly used in the VSA of semiconductor VOC sensors. Based on machine learning algorithms, we have achieved highly precise recognition of different VOCs and mixtures and accurate prediction (accuracy of 89.1%) of the objective VOC's concentration in variable backgrounds using this proposed FVSA. Moreover, a blind analysis validates the capacity of the FVSA to identify alcohol content in human breath with an accuracy of 88.9% using breath samples from volunteers before and after alcohol consumption. These results show that the proposed FVSA is promising for the detection of VOC biomarkers in human exhaled breath and early diagnosis of diseases.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: The authors thank all the volunteers who helped with this work. This work is supported by the “National Natural Science Foundation of China (51875521)”, the “Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (LZ19E050002)”, the “Science Fund for Creative Research Groups of National Natural Science Foundation of China (51821093)”, the Engineering Physics and Science Research Council of UK (EPSRC EP/P018998/1), and the International Exchange Grant (IEC/NSFC/201078) through Royal Society and NFSC.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Flexible VOCs sensor, Laser-induced graphene, MXene, Selectivity, Virtual sensor array, Human breath detection
Subjects: F200 Materials Science
F300 Physics
H600 Electronic and Electrical Engineering
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: John Coen
Date Deposited: 02 Aug 2021 11:19
Last Modified: 05 Oct 2021 15:30
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/46823

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