Associations between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in older adults in New Zealand: the REACH study

Mumme, Karen D., Conlon, Cathryn A., von Hurst, Pamela R., Jones, Beatrix, de Seymour, Jamie V., Stonehouse, Welma, Heath, Anne-Louise M., Coad, Jane, Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal, Mugridge, Owen, Slade, Cassandra and Beck, Kathryn L. (2021) Associations between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in older adults in New Zealand: the REACH study. British Journal of Nutrition. ISSN 0007-1145 (In Press)

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521004682

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome is common in older adults and may be modified by the diet. The aim of this study was to examine associations between a posteriori dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in an older New Zealand population.

The REACH study (Researching Eating, Activity, and Cognitive Health) included 366 participants (65-74 years, 36% male) living independently in Auckland, New Zealand. Dietary data were collected using a 109-item food frequency questionnaire with demonstrated validity and reproducibility for assessing dietary patterns using principal component analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Associations between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome, adjusted for age, sex, index of multiple deprivation, physical activity, and energy intake were analysed using logistic regression analysis.

Three dietary patterns explained 18% of dietary intake variation - 'Mediterranean style' (salad/leafy cruciferous/other vegetables, avocados/olives, alliums, nuts/seeds, shellfish and white/oily fish, berries), 'prudent' (dried/fresh/frozen legumes, soy-based foods, whole grains, carrots), and 'Western' (processed meat/fish, sauces/condiments, cakes/biscuits/puddings, meat pies/hot chips). No associations were seen between 'Mediterranean style' [OR=0.75 (95% CI 0.53, 1.06), P=0.11] or 'prudent' [OR=1.17 (95% CI 0.83, 1.59), P=0.35] patterns and metabolic syndrome after co-variate adjustment. The 'Western' pattern was positively associated with metabolic syndrome [OR=1.67 (95% CI 1.08, 2.63), P=0.02]. There was also a small association between an index of multiple deprivation [OR=1.04 (95% CI 1.02, 1.06), P<0.001] and metabolic syndrome.

This cross-sectional study provides further support for a Western dietary pattern being a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in an older population.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: This work was supported by the Health Research Council of New Zealand (Grant 17/566).
Uncontrolled Keywords: Mediterranean dietary pattern, Western dietary pattern, principal component analysis, metabolic syndrome, healthy ageing, metabolic syndrome prevalence, socio-economic status, index of multiple deprivation
Subjects: B400 Nutrition
C100 Biology
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Psychology
Depositing User: John Coen
Date Deposited: 09 Dec 2021 15:51
Last Modified: 10 Dec 2021 09:48
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/47946

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