Spray and engine performance of cerium oxide nanopowder and carbon nanotubes modified alternative fuel

Zhang, Zhichao, Lu, Yiji, Qian, Zi and Paul Roskilly, Anthony (2022) Spray and engine performance of cerium oxide nanopowder and carbon nanotubes modified alternative fuel. Fuel, 320. p. 123952. ISSN 0016-2361

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.123952

Abstract

This work aims to experimentally investigate and demonstrate the impacts of using Cerium Oxide (CeO2) and multi-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) blended with the alternative fuel, which is gas-to-liquid fuel (GTL) in this study, compared to diesel fuel (DF) on engine performance and study the macroscopic spray characteristics through a Constant Volume Vessel (CVV). Results demonstrate Cerium Oxide nanopowder and carbon nanotubes have very limited impacts on the average cone angle of gas-to-liquid fuel and diesel fuel. Cerium Oxide nanopowder and carbon nanotubes can individually reduce spray penetration during injection under a small ambient pressure when blended with diesel fuel, whilst the effect on gas-to-liquid fuel is less significant because the smaller density and lighter compositions of gas-to-liquid fuel promote its breakup process. In the post-injection period, carbon nanotubes increases the spray penetration of gas-to-liquid fuel, because gas-to-liquid fuel molecules are smaller than diesel fuel. Consequently, more gas-to-liquid fuel molecules stay inside the carbon nanotubes, which can only evaporate through two ends, and thus results in an overall reduced evaporation rate. Moreover, experiments also demonstrate that the average cone angle is independent of rail pressure, but it can be reduced by decreasing ambient pressure and increasing ambient temperature. During injection, both ambient pressure and rail pressure can influence the spray penetration, whilst after the end of injection, only ambient temperature has an effect on it. The engine experiment indicates that Cerium Oxide nanopowder can reduce nitrogen oxides, unburnt hydrocarbons and particulate number emissions simultaneously for both diesel fuel and gas-to-liquid fuel due to its catalysis at high-temperature conditions, whilst carbon nanotubes has a weaker effect on reducing nitrogen oxides and particulate number for gas-to-liquid fuel than diesel fuel.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: This collaborative research project was only possible thanks to generous support from the Royal Academy of Engineering through the Transforming Systems through Partnerships program (TSP1098).
Uncontrolled Keywords: Alternative/cleaner fuel, Cerium oxide nanopowder, Carbon nanotube, Spray, Emission analysis, Internal combustion engine
Subjects: H300 Mechanical Engineering
H800 Chemical, Process and Energy Engineering
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mechanical and Construction Engineering
Depositing User: Rachel Branson
Date Deposited: 05 Apr 2022 08:07
Last Modified: 05 Apr 2022 08:15
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/48813

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