The Rightful Demise of the Sh*t Sandwich: Providing Effective Feedback

James, Ian (2015) The Rightful Demise of the Sh*t Sandwich: Providing Effective Feedback. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 43 (6). pp. 759-766. ISSN 1469-1833

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Background: As a trainee cognitive therapist in the early 1990s, I was taught the Sh*t Sandwich by my supervisor. I continued to use this technique for many years without seeing the need to extend my repertoire of feedback strategies. Aims: This article describes a number of other feedback techniques, raising awareness of the processes underpinning feedback, and facilitating reflection on feedback methods. Method: This review examines feedback and the methods of feedback used to improve clinical competence. Results: Evidence informs us that the use of good feedback has a significant effect on learners' outcomes (Milne, 2009). However, despite recognition of its importance, many supervisors fail to give adequate feedback and utilize methods that are sub-optimal. One such problematic method is the notorious "Sh*t Sandwich" (SS), which attempts to hide criticism within a cushion of two positive statements. This paper looks at various models of giving negative and positive feedback, suggesting that our repertoire of feedback methods may require expanding. Conclusion: The review suggests that feedback is a complex process and methods that place an emphasis on the learner as an active participant in the learning process (i.e. interactive approaches) should be encouraged. The paper suggests that negative feedback should generally be avoided in favour of constructive support, accompanied by specific, descriptive, balanced feedback, with new learning being consolidated by role play. Generally, feedback should be given about the task rather than the person, but when it is personalized it should relate to effort rather than ability.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Published online ahead of print publication
Subjects: C800 Psychology
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Psychology
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Depositing User: Paul Burns
Date Deposited: 14 Apr 2014 13:21
Last Modified: 12 Oct 2019 17:27

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