What are women being exposed to? A review of the quality, content and ownership of websites on premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Hardy, Claire and Sillence, Elizabeth (2016) What are women being exposed to? A review of the quality, content and ownership of websites on premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Women's Health Issues, 26 (2). pp. 183-189. ISSN 1049-3867

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2015.11.007



An increasing number of people are now turning to the Internet for health information. Internet use is especially likely in women with the clinical condition premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which affects approximately 8% of premenopausal women. However, to date, there has not been a review of the quality of these online resources on PMDD. The aim of the present study was to address this gap by reviewing websites containing PMDD information.


A search was conducted on three commonly used search engines (Google, Yahoo, and Bing). The first 50 results were extracted and compared across each search engine results to determine unique resources. After removing inaccessible links, a total of 69 unique websites were reviewed to evaluate their general quality, condition-specific content quality, and ownership.


The websites varied widely in terms of their quality and ownership. Most returned websites were from web providers, U.S. health care providers, and media companies. General quality (e.g., design) was modest; yet, condition-specific content quality was far poorer.


Women are being exposed to a varying degree of quality information about PMDD. Health professionals and website owners of this information should consider this and encourage better online resources to help this patient group. The paper presents the five highest scoring websites that may be used by those with a vested interest in PMDD, such as health professionals or women with PMDD.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: B900 Others in Subjects allied to Medicine
C800 Psychology
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Psychology
Depositing User: Ay Okpokam
Date Deposited: 13 Jan 2016 13:05
Last Modified: 01 Aug 2021 07:05
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/25419

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