A comparative cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of three concrete mix designs

Tait, Michael W. and Cheung, Wai Ming (2016) A comparative cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of three concrete mix designs. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 21 (6). pp. 847-860. ISSN 0948-3349

Tait.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.

Download (7MB) | Preview
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-016-1045-5


The concrete industry faces challenges to create concrete mix designs that reduce negative environmental impacts but also maintain high performance. This has led to ‘greener’ cementitious materials being developed which can decrease the use of traditional Portland cement (PC). This study intended to carry out a ‘cradle-to-gate’ life cycle assessment (LCA) on concrete mix designs containing different cementitious blends.

The aim of this study was to obtain the overall environmental impact, with a particular focus on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of three concrete mix designs: CEM I (100 % PC content), CEM II/B-V (65 % PC content, 35 % Fly Ash (FA) content) and CEM III/B (30 % PC content, 70 % ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) content). Evaluations of the three concrete mixes were performed using ‘SimaPro 8’ LCA software. A comparative cradle-to-gate LCA of these mixes has not currently been explored and could present a new insight into improving the environmental impact of concrete with the use of secondary materials. Recommendations from this work would help the industry make key decisions about concrete mix designs.

Results and discussion:
Results show that Mix 2 (CEM II/B-V) and Mix 3 (CEM III/B) could potentially be taken forwards to improve their environmental impacts of concrete production. With respect to optimum mix design, it is strongly recommended that GGBS is selected as the addition of choice for reducing CO2 emissions. FA does still considerably improve sustainability when compared to PC, but this work proved that inclusion of GGBS environmentally optimises the mix design even further. Advantages of using GGBS include lower CO2 emissions, a substantial reduction of environmental impacts and an increased scope for sustainability due to the higher PC replacement levels that are permitted for GGBS. Due to mix designs enabling a higher contribution of GGBS additions, it would also indicate an increased positive effect regarding waste scenarios.

Conclusions and recommendations:
The main contribution of this work demonstrated that concrete can be produced without loss of performance whilst significantly reducing the negative environmental impacts incurred in its production. The results obtained from this work would help to define the available options for optimising concrete mix design. The only material variations in each mix were the different cementitious blends. So, by determining the best option, a platform to make recommendations can be established based upon cementitious materials.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: CO2 emissions; Concrete mix designs; Concrete production; Construction industry; LCA
Subjects: H200 Civil Engineering
H700 Production and Manufacturing Engineering
J500 Materials Technology not otherwise specified
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mechanical and Construction Engineering
Depositing User: Paul Burns
Date Deposited: 24 Feb 2016 11:31
Last Modified: 31 Jul 2021 13:46
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/26144

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics