Optical and electrical characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for free space optical communications

Al Zaidi, Salam (2016) Optical and electrical characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for free space optical communications. Doctoral thesis, Northumbria University.

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Among the number of optical sources, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are relatively recent type of semiconductor laser devices, which are attractive for a number of applications particularly for free space optical (FSO) communication systems. In such systems reliable optical devices with lower power consumption and low cost are among the key requirements. VCSELs typically operate with unstable output polarization modes, and there is a need to improve their output power regarding to the polarization instability, particularly when introducing the optical feedback (OF).

This thesis investigates a number of key properties of VCSEL including the polarization instability, hysteresis loop (HL), relative intensity noise (RIN) and how to control the polarization switching (PS). The investigations are based on the analytical studies and extensive experimental work. PS properties of VCSEL are investigated by introducing variable polarization optical feedback (VPOF) with the modulation frequency and modulation depth. The dependency conditions for the HL, RIN and PS are determined with VPOF. Under OF, the threshold current (Ith) of VCSEL is reduced by 11.5% and the PS, which is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally, is completely suppressed. The PS positions are depending on the polarization angle of OF, OF levels and the bias current. The PS disappeared with the modulation depth of 78.66%, whereas it is entirely vanished with the modulation frequency of 200 MHz. The hysteresis width of the VCSEL polarization modes is reduced by increasing the feedback level. The minimum RIN value of -156 dB/Hz is achieved at a zero degree of the polarization angle for the dominant polarization mode of VCSEL under VPOF.

For the first time, a novel technique based on employing orthogonal polarization OF is proposed to supress the nonlinearity associated with the modulated VCSEL, where the second, third, and fourth harmonics are completely suppressed to the noise floor. Finally, optimal operating conditions for a high-quality polarization-resolved chaos synchronization of the polarization modes of VCSEL with VPOF are experimentally and theoretically studied. A perfect value of 99% of the correlation dynamics for the chaotic synchronization of the polarization modes of VCSEL is found with a zero time delay over a wide range of polarization angle.

Finally, Simulink and Origin software version 6.1 are used in this work to simulate and plot the results. The simulation results are agreed with the experimental results, which show that the chaotic synchronization dynamic of the polarization modes can be achieved by VPOF.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: laser diodes, VCSELs, polarization properties, hysteresis loop, nonlinearity, chaotic synchronization
Subjects: H600 Electronic and Electrical Engineering
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering
University Services > Graduate School > Doctor of Philosophy
Depositing User: Paul Burns
Date Deposited: 09 Feb 2017 16:19
Last Modified: 31 Jul 2021 23:18
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/29609

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