Intelligent facial expression recognition with unsupervised facial point detection and evolutionary feature optimization

Mistry, Kamlesh (2016) Intelligent facial expression recognition with unsupervised facial point detection and evolutionary feature optimization. Doctoral thesis, Northumbria University.


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Facial expression is one of the effective channels to convey emotions and feelings. Many shape-based, appearance-based or hybrid methods for automatic facial expression recognition have been proposed. However, it is still a challenging task to identify emotions from facial images with scaling differences, pose variations, and occlusions. In addition, it is also difficult to identify significant discriminating facial features that could represent the characteristic of each expression because of the subtlety and variability of facial expressions. In order to deal with the above challenges, this research proposes two novel approaches: unsupervised facial point detection and texture-based facial expression recognition with feature optimisation.
First of all, unsupervised automatic facial point detection integrated with regression-based intensity estimation for facial Action Units (AUs) and emotion clustering is proposed to deal with challenges such as scaling differences, pose variations, and occlusions. The proposed facial point detector can detect 54 facial points in images of faces with occlusions, pose variations and scaling differences. We conduct AU intensity estimation respectively using support vector regression and neural networks for 18 selected AUs. FCM is also subsequently employed to recognise seven basic emotions as well as neutral expressions. It also shows great potential to deal with compound and newly arrived novel emotion class detection. The second proposed system focuses on a texture-based approach for facial expression recognition by proposing a novel variant of the local binary pattern for discriminative feature extraction and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based feature optimisation. Multiple classifiers are applied for recognising seven facial expressions.
Finally, evaluations are conducted to show the efficiency of the above two proposed systems. Evaluated using well-known facial databases: Helen, labelled faces in the wild, PUT, and CK+ the proposed unsupervised facial point detector outperforms other supervised landmark detection models dramatically and shows excellent robustness and capability in dealing with rotations, occlusions and illumination changes. Moreover, a comprehensive evaluation is also conducted for the proposed texture-based facial expression recognition with mGA-embedded PSO feature optimisation. Evaluated using the CK+ and MMI benchmark databases, the experimental results indicate that it outperforms other state-of-the-art metaheuristic search methods and facial emotion recognition research reported in the literature by a significant margin.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Subjects: G400 Computer Science
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Computer and Information Sciences
University Services > Graduate School > Doctor of Philosophy
Depositing User: Becky Skoyles
Date Deposited: 02 Oct 2018 15:48
Last Modified: 22 Sep 2022 17:45

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