What effect do substorms have on the content of the radiation belts?

Forsyth, C., Rae, Jonathan, Murphy, K. R., Freeman, M. P., Huang, C.-L., Spence, H. E., Boyd, A. J., Coxon, J. C., Jackman, C. M., Kalmoni, N. M. E. and Watt, Clare (2016) What effect do substorms have on the content of the radiation belts? Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 121 (7). pp. 6292-6306. ISSN 2169-9380

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JA022620

Abstract

Substorms are fundamental and dynamic processes in the magnetosphere, converting captured solar wind magnetic energy into plasma energy. These substorms have been suggested to be a key driver of energetic electron enhancements in the outer radiation belts. Substorms inject a keV “seed” population into the inner magnetosphere which is subsequently energized through wave‐particle interactions up to relativistic energies; however, the extent to which substorms enhance the radiation belts, either directly or indirectly, has never before been quantified. In this study, we examine increases and decreases in the total radiation belt electron content (TRBEC) following substorms and geomagnetically quiet intervals. Our results show that the radiation belts are inherently lossy, shown by a negative median change in TRBEC at all intervals following substorms and quiet intervals. However, there are up to 3 times as many increases in TRBEC following substorm intervals. There is a lag of 1–3 days between the substorm or quiet intervals and their greatest effect on radiation belt content, shown in the difference between the occurrence of increases and losses in TRBEC following substorms and quiet intervals, the mean change in TRBEC following substorms or quiet intervals, and the cross correlation between SuperMAG AL (SML) and TRBEC. However, there is a statistically significant effect on the occurrence of increases and decreases in TRBEC up to a lag of 6 days. Increases in radiation belt content show a significant correlation with SML and SYM‐H, but decreases in the radiation belt show no apparent link with magnetospheric activity levels.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Research funded by Natural Environment Research Council (NE/L007177/1, NE/L006456/1, NE/L007495/1, NE/M00886X/1) | Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) (ST/L000563/1) | National Science Foundation | National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Canadian NSERC Postdoctoral Fellowship | Van Allen Probes project | RBSP-ECT | JHU/APL
Subjects: F300 Physics
F500 Astronomy
F800 Physical and Terrestrial Geographical and Environmental Sciences
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Elena Carlaw
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2021 13:16
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2021 13:16
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/45429

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