The Utilization of Artificial Neural Network Equalizer in Optical Camera Communications

Younus, Othman, Hassan, Navid Bani, Ghassemlooy, Zabih, Zvanovec, Stanislav, Alves, Luis Nero and Le Minh, Hoa (2021) The Utilization of Artificial Neural Network Equalizer in Optical Camera Communications. Sensors, 21 (8). p. 2826. ISSN 1424-8220

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In this paper, we propose and validate an artificial neural network-based equalizer for the constant power 4-level pulse amplitude modulation in an optical camera communications system. We introduce new terminology to measure the quality of the communications link in terms of the number of row pixels per symbol , which allows a fair comparison considering the progress made in the development of the current image sensors in terms of the frame rates and the resolutions of each frame. Using the proposed equalizer, we experimentally demonstrate a non-flickering system using a single light-emitting diode (LED) with of 20 and 30 pixels/symbol for the unequalized and equalized systems, respectively. Potential transmission rates of up to 18.6 and 24.4 kbps are achieved with and without the equalization, respectively. The quality of the received signal is assessed using the eye-diagram opening and its linearity and the bit error rate performance. An acceptable bit error rate (below the forward error correction limit) and an improvement of ~66 in the eye linearity are achieved using a single LED and a typical commercial camera with equalization.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: One of the authors (Othman Younus) is funded by the Northumbria University PhD scholarship. The work is supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska‐Curie grant agreement no 764461 (VISION), and the EU COST Action on Newfocus (CA19111).
Uncontrolled Keywords: CP 4-PAM; optical camera communications; ANN equalizer
Subjects: F300 Physics
G500 Information Systems
G600 Software Engineering
H600 Electronic and Electrical Engineering
H800 Chemical, Process and Energy Engineering
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Elena Carlaw
Date Deposited: 19 Apr 2021 10:24
Last Modified: 31 Jul 2021 15:50

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