Insomnia and daytime sleepiness: risk factors for sports-related concussion

Raikes, Adam C., Athey, Amy, Alfonso-Miller, Pamela, Killgore, William D.S. and Grandner, Michael A. (2019) Insomnia and daytime sleepiness: risk factors for sports-related concussion. Sleep Medicine, 58. pp. 66-74. ISSN 1389-9457

2019-02-22_sleep-medicine_revision-01.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives 4.0.

Download (263kB) | Preview
Official URL:


Objective/Background: Poor quality and inadequate sleep are associated with impaired cognitive, motor, and behavioral components of sport performance and increased injury risk. While prior work identifies sports-related concussions as predisposing factors for poor sleep, the role of sleep as a sports-related concussion risk factor is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of poor sleep quality and insomnia symptoms on future sports-related concussion risk. Patients/Methods: In this study, 190 NCAA Division-1 athletes completed a survey battery, including the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)Sleep module. Univariate risk ratios for future sports-related concussions were computed with ISI and NHANES sleepiness scores as independent predictors. An additional multiple logistic regression model including sport, sports-related concussion history, and significant univariate predictors jointly assessed the odds of sustaining a concussion. Results: Clinically moderate-to-severe insomnia severity (RR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.320–7.424, p = 0.015)and excessive daytime sleepiness two or more times per month (RR = 2.856, 95% CI: 0.681–11.977, p = 0.037)increased concussion risk. These variables remained significant and comparable in magnitude in a multivariate model adjusted for sport participation. Conclusion: Insomnia and daytime sleepiness are independently associated with increased sports-related concussion risk. More completely identifying bidirectional relationships between concussions and sleep requires further research. Clinicians and athletes should be cognizant of this relationship and take proactive measures – including assessing and treating sleep-disordered breathing, limiting insomnia risk factors, improving sleep hygiene, and developing daytime sleepiness management strategies – to reduce sports-related concussion risk and support overall athletic performance.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: The study was funded by an Innovations grant from the National Collegiate Athletic Association . Dr. Grandner is also supported by R01 MD011600. Drs. Raikes and Killgore are also supported by a US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command grant ( W81XWH-14-1-0571) to Dr. Killgore.
Uncontrolled Keywords: College athletes, Daytime sleepiness, Insomnia severity index, Relative risk, Sleep quality, Sports-related concussion
Subjects: B900 Others in Subjects allied to Medicine
C600 Sports Science
C800 Psychology
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Psychology
Depositing User: Rachel Branson
Date Deposited: 07 Sep 2021 09:50
Last Modified: 07 Sep 2021 10:00

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics