initMIP-Antarctica: an ice sheet model initialization experiment of ISMIP6

Seroussi, Hélène, Nowicki, Sophie, Simon, Erika, Abe-Ouchi, Ayako, Albrecht, Torsten, Brondex, Julien, Cornford, Stephen, Dumas, Christophe, Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien, Goelzer, Heiko, Golledge, Nicholas R., Gregory, Jonathan M., Greve, Ralf, Hoffman, Matthew J., Humbert, Angelika, Huybrechts, Philippe, Kleiner, Thomas, Larour, Eric, Leguy, Gunter, Lipscomb, William H., Lowry, Daniel, Mengel, Matthias, Morlighem, Mathieu, Pattyn, Frank, Payne, Anthony J., Pollard, David, Price, Stephen F., Quiquet, Aurélien, Reerink, Thomas J., Reese, Ronja, Rodehacke, Christian B., Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne, Shepherd, Andrew, Sun, Sainan, Sutter, Johannes, Van Breedam, Jonas, van de Wal, Roderik S. W., Winkelmann, Ricarda and Zhang, Tong (2019) initMIP-Antarctica: an ice sheet model initialization experiment of ISMIP6. The Cryosphere, 13 (5). pp. 1441-1471. ISSN 1994-0424

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Ice sheet numerical modeling is an important tool to estimate the dynamic contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet to sea level rise over the coming centuries. The influence of initial conditions on ice sheet model simulations, however, is still unclear. To better understand this influence, an initial state intercomparison exercise (initMIP) has been developed to compare, evaluate, and improve initialization procedures and estimate their impact on century-scale simulations. initMIP is the first set of experiments of the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6), which is the primary Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) activity focusing on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Following initMIP-Greenland, initMIP-Antarctica has been designed to explore uncertainties associated with model initialization and spin-up and to evaluate the impact of changes in external forcings. Starting from the state of the Antarctic ice sheet at the end of the initialization procedure, three forward experiments are each run for 100 years: a control run, a run with a surface mass balance anomaly, and a run with a basal melting anomaly beneath floating ice. This study presents the results of initMIP-Antarctica from 25 simulations performed by 16 international modeling groups. The submitted results use different initial conditions and initialization methods, as well as ice flow model parameters and reference external forcings. We find a good agreement among model responses to the surface mass balance anomaly but large variations in responses to the basal melting anomaly. These variations can be attributed to differences in the extent of ice shelves and their upstream tributaries, the numerical treatment of grounding line, and the initial ocean conditions applied, suggesting that ongoing efforts to better represent ice shelves in continental-scale models should continue.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Acknowledgements. We acknowledge the Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) project and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) for their guidance, support, and sponsorship. We thank the CMIP6 panel members for their continuous leadership of the CMIP6 effort and the Working Group on Coupled Modeling (WGCM) Infrastructure Panel (WIP) for overseeing the CMIP6 and ISMIP6 infrastructure and data request. Research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NM0018D0004). Hélène Seroussi, Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel, Eric Larour, Sophie Nowicki, and Erika Simon are supported by grants from the NASA Cryospheric Science, Sea Level Change Team, and Modeling Analysis and Prediction Program. Material is based upon work supported by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is a major facility sponsored by the National Science Foundation under Co-operative Agreement no. 1852977. Computing and data storage resources for CISM simulations, including the Cheyenne supercomputer (, were provided by the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory (CISL) at NCAR. Ralf Greve was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI grant numbers JP16H02224, JP17H06104, and JP17H06323. Christian Rodehacke (DMI) has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) for research, and Theme 6 Environment as part of the NACLIM (North Atlantic Climate) project (grant agreement 308299), as well as the Nordic Centers of Excellence eSTICC (eScience Tool for Investigating Climate Change at High Northern Latitudes) funded by Nordforsk (grant 57001). Support for Matthew J. Hoffman, Stephen F. Price, and Tong Zhang was provided through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research and Advanced Scientific Computing Research programs. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (OCW), in the Netherlands, provided financial support for this study via the program of the Netherlands Earth System Science Centre (NESSC). The work of Thomas Kleiner and Angelika Hum-bert has been conducted in the framework of the PalMod project (FKZ: 01LP1511B), supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) as Research for Sustainability initiative (FONA). Aurélien Quiquet acknowledges funding from the European Research Council grant ACCLIMATE no. 339108. Fa-bien Gillet-Chaulet and Julien Brondex (IGE) have received funding from the French National Research Agency (ANR) under the TROIS-AS project (ANR-15-CE01-0005-01). IGE-ELMER simu- lations were performed using HPC resources from GENCI-CINES (grant 2017-016066) and using the Froggy platform of the CI-MENT infrastructure, which is supported by the Rhone-Alpes region (grant CPER07_13 CIRA), the OSUG@2020 laBex (reference ANR10 LABX56), and the Equip@Meso project (reference ANR-10-EQPX-29-01). Torsten Albrecht was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the priority program “Antarctic Research with comparative investigations in Arctic ice areas” by grant LE1448/6-1 and LE1448/7-1. Matthias Mengel was supported by the DFG in the same frame-work by grant WI 4556/4-1. Development of PISM is supported by NASA grant NNX17AG65G and NSF grants PLR-1603799 and PLR-1644277. The authors gratefully acknowledge the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and the Land Brandenburg for supporting this project by providing resources on the high-performance computer system at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. Computer resources for this project have also been provided by the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing/Leibniz Supercomputing Centre under Project-ID pr94ga. Mathieu Morlighem was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (OPP; grant no. 1443229). Sainan Sun was supported by the FRS-FNRS MEDRISM project and the BELSPO MIMO project (Stereo III). Philippe Huybrechts and Jonas Van Breedam acknowledge support from the iceMOD project funded by the Research Foundation – Flanders (FWO-Vlaanderen). Daniel Lowry acknowledges support from the Antarctica New Zealand Doctoral Scholarship program and the New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (grant 15-VUW-131).
Subjects: F700 Ocean Sciences
F900 Others in Physical Sciences
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Geography and Environmental Sciences
Depositing User: Rachel Branson
Date Deposited: 20 Sep 2021 14:48
Last Modified: 20 Sep 2021 15:00

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