Training During the COVID-19 Lockdown: Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of 12,526 Athletes from 142 Countries and Six Continents

Washif, Jad Adrian, Farooq, Abdulaziz, Krug, Isabel, Pyne, David B., Verhagen, Evert, Taylor, Lee, Wong, Del P., Mujika, Iñigo, Cortis, Cristina, Haddad, Monoem, Ahmadian, Omid, Al Jufaili, Mahmood, Al-Horani, Ramzi A., Al-Mohannadi, Abdulla Saeed, Aloui, Asma, Ammar, Achraf, Arifi, Fitim, Aziz, Abdul Rashid, Batuev, Mikhail, Beaven, Christopher Martyn, Beneke, Ralph, Bici, Arben, Bishnoi, Pallawi, Bogwasi, Lone, Bok, Daniel, Boukhris, Omar, Boullosa, Daniel, Bragazzi, Nicola, Brito, Joao, Cartagena, Roxana Paola Palacios, Chaouachi, Anis, Cheung, Stephen S., Chtourou, Hamdi, Cosma, Germina, Debevec, Tadej, DeLang, Matthew D., Dellal, Alexandre, Dönmez, Gürhan, Driss, Tarak, Peña Duque, Juan David, Eirale, Cristiano, Elloumi, Mohamed, Foster, Carl, Franchini, Emerson, Fusco, Andrea, Galy, Olivier, Gastin, Paul B., Gill, Nicholas, Girard, Olivier, Gregov, Cvita, Halson, Shona, Hammouda, Omar, Hanzlíková, Ivana, Hassanmirzaei, Bahar, Haugen, Thomas, Hébert-Losier, Kim, Muñoz Helú, Hussein, Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás, Hettinga, Florentina, Holtzhausen, Louis, Hue, Olivier, Dello Iacono, Antonio, Ihalainen, Johanna K., James, Carl, Janse van Rensburg, Dina C., Joseph, Saju, Kamoun, Karim, Khaled, Mehdi, Khalladi, Karim, Kim, Kwang Joon, Kok, Lian-Yee, MacMillan, Lewis, Mataruna-Dos-Santos, Leonardo Jose, Matsunaga, Ryo, Memishi, Shpresa, Millet, Grégoire P., Moussa-Chamari, Imen, Musa, Danladi Ibrahim, Nguyen, Hoang Minh Thuan, Nikolaidis, Pantelis T., Owen, Adam, Padulo, Johnny, Pagaduan, Jeffrey Cayaban, Perera, Nirmala Panagodage, Pérez-Gómez, Jorge, Pillay, Lervasen, Popa, Arporn, Pudasaini, Avishkar, Rabbani, Alireza, Rahayu, Tandiyo, Romdhani, Mohamed, Salamh, Paul, Sarkar, Abu-Sufian, Schillinger, Andy, Seiler, Stephen, Setyawati, Heny, Shrestha, Navina, Suraya, Fatona, Tabben, Montassar, Trabelsi, Khaled, Urhausen, Axel, Valtonen, Maarit, Weber, Johanna, Whiteley, Rodney, Zrane, Adel, Zerguini, Yacine, Zmijewski, Piotr, Sandbakk, Øyvind, Ben Saad, Helmi and Chamari, Karim (2022) Training During the COVID-19 Lockdown: Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of 12,526 Athletes from 142 Countries and Six Continents. Sports Medicine, 52 (4). pp. 933-948. ISSN 0112-1642

Text (Final published version)
Washif2022_Article_TrainingDuringTheCOVID-19Lockd.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.

Download (1MB) | Preview
Text (Advance online version)
Advance online version.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.

Download (1MB) | Preview
Official URL:


Our objective was to explore the training-related knowledge, beliefs, and practices of athletes and the influence of lockdowns in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Athletes (n = 12,526, comprising 13% world class, 21% international, 36% national, 24% state, and 6% recreational) completed an online survey that was available from 17 May to 5 July 2020 and explored their training behaviors (training knowledge, beliefs/attitudes, and practices), including specific questions on their training intensity, frequency, and session duration before and during lockdown (March–June 2020).

Overall, 85% of athletes wanted to “maintain training,” and 79% disagreed with the statement that it is “okay to not train during lockdown,” with a greater prevalence for both in higher-level athletes. In total, 60% of athletes considered “coaching by correspondence (remote coaching)” to be sufficient (highest amongst world-class athletes). During lockdown, < 40% were able to maintain sport-specific training (e.g., long endurance [39%], interval training [35%], weightlifting [33%], plyometric exercise [30%]) at pre-lockdown levels (higher among world-class, international, and national athletes), with most (83%) training for “general fitness and health maintenance” during lockdown. Athletes trained alone (80%) and focused on bodyweight (65%) and cardiovascular (59%) exercise/training during lockdown. Compared with before lockdown, most athletes reported reduced training frequency (from between five and seven sessions per week to four or fewer), shorter training sessions (from ≥ 60 to < 60 min), and lower sport-specific intensity (~ 38% reduction), irrespective of athlete classification.

COVID-19-related lockdowns saw marked reductions in athletic training specificity, intensity, frequency, and duration, with notable within-sample differences (by athlete classification). Higher classification athletes had the strongest desire to “maintain” training and the greatest opposition to “not training” during lockdowns. These higher classification athletes retained training specificity to a greater degree than others, probably because of preferential access to limited training resources. More higher classification athletes considered “coaching by correspondence” as sufficient than did lower classification athletes. These lockdown-mediated changes in training were not conducive to maintenance or progression of athletes’ physical capacities and were also likely detrimental to athletes’ mental health. These data can be used by policy makers, athletes, and their multidisciplinary teams to modulate their practice, with a degree of individualization, in the current and continued pandemic-related scenario. Furthermore, the data may drive training-related educational resources for athletes and their multidisciplinary teams. Such upskilling would provide athletes with evidence to inform their training modifications in response to germane situations (e.g., COVID related, injury, and illness).

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: A specific funding was provided by the National Sports Institute of Malaysia for this study.
Subjects: C600 Sports Science
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation
Depositing User: Rachel Branson
Date Deposited: 08 Nov 2021 12:55
Last Modified: 07 Apr 2022 14:30

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics