How Much Flux Does a Flux Transfer Event Transfer?

Fear, R. C., Trenchi, L., Coxon, John and Milan, S. E. (2017) How Much Flux Does a Flux Transfer Event Transfer? Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 122 (12). pp. 12310-12327. ISSN 2169-9380

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Flux transfer events are bursts of reconnection at the dayside magnetopause, which give rise to characteristic signatures observed by a range of magnetospheric/ionospheric instrumentation. One outstanding problem is that there is a fundamental mismatch between space-based and ionospheric estimates of the flux that is opened by each flux transfer event—in other words, their overall significance in the Dungey cycle. Spacecraft-based estimates of the flux content of individual flux transfer events (FTEs) correspond to each event transferring flux equivalent to approximately 1% of the open flux in the magnetosphere, whereas studies based on global-scale radar and auroral observations suggest this figure could be of the order of 10%. In the former case, flux transfer events would be a minor detail in the Dungey cycle, but in the latter they could be its main driver. We present observations of two conjunctions between flux transfer events observed by the Cluster spacecraft and pulsed ionospheric flows observed by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) network. In both cases, a similar number of FTE signatures were observed by Cluster and one of the SuperDARN radars, but the conjunctions differ in the azimuthal separation of the spacecraft and ionospheric observations (i.e., the distance of the spacecraft from the cusp throat). We argue that the reason for the existing mismatch in flux estimates is due to implicit assumptions made about FTE structure, which tacitly ignore the majority of flux opened in mechanisms based on longer reconnection lines. If the effects of such mechanisms are considered, a much better match is found.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: R. C. F. was supported by the UK’s Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) Ernest Rutherford Fellowship ST/K004298/2; L. T. and J. C. C. were supported by STFC Ernest Rutherford grant ST/L002809/1, and S. E. M. was supported by STFC consolidated grant ST/N000749/1.
Uncontrolled Keywords: flux transfer event, magnetopause, reconnection
Subjects: F500 Astronomy
F800 Physical and Terrestrial Geographical and Environmental Sciences
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Rachel Branson
Date Deposited: 24 Feb 2022 15:23
Last Modified: 24 Feb 2022 15:30

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