Identification of Novel Potential Type 2 Diabetes Genes Mediating β-Cell Loss and Hyperglycemia Using Positional Cloning

Aga, Heja, Hallahan, Nicole, Gottmann, Pascal, Jaehnert, Markus, Osburg, Sophie, Schulze, Gunnar, Kamitz, Anne, Arends, Danny, Brockmann, Gudrun, Schallschmidt, Tanja, Lebek, Sandra, Chadt, Alexandra, Al-Hasani, Hadi, Joost, Hans-Georg, Schürmann, Annette and Vogel, Heike (2020) Identification of Novel Potential Type 2 Diabetes Genes Mediating β-Cell Loss and Hyperglycemia Using Positional Cloning. Frontiers in Genetics, 11. p. 567191. ISSN 1664-8021

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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease regulated by an interaction of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. To understand the genetic contribution in the development of diabetes, mice varying in their disease susceptibility were crossed with the obese and diabetes-prone New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse. Subsequent whole-genome sequence scans revealed one major quantitative trait loci (QTL), Nidd/DBA on chromosome 4, linked to elevated blood glucose and reduced plasma insulin and low levels of pancreatic insulin. Phenotypical characterization of congenic mice carrying 13.6 Mbp of the critical fragment of DBA mice displayed severe hyperglycemia and impaired glucose clearance at week 10, decreased glucose response in week 13, and loss of β-cells and pancreatic insulin in week 16. To identify the responsible gene variant(s), further congenic mice were generated and phenotyped, which resulted in a fragment of 3.3 Mbp that was sufficient to induce hyperglycemia. By combining transcriptome analysis and haplotype mapping, the number of putative responsible variant(s) was narrowed from initial 284 to 18 genes, including gene models and non-coding RNAs. Consideration of haplotype blocks reduced the number of candidate genes to four (Kti12, Osbpl9, Ttc39a, and Calr4) as potential T2D candidates as they display a differential expression in pancreatic islets and/or sequence variation. In conclusion, the integration of comparative analysis of multiple inbred populations such as haplotype mapping, transcriptomics, and sequence data substantially improved the mapping resolution of the diabetes QTL Nidd/DBA. Future studies are necessary to understand the exact role of the different candidates in β-cell function and their contribution in maintaining glycemic control.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: The work was supported by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF: DZD grant 82DZD00302) and the Brandenburg state.
Uncontrolled Keywords: haplotype, insulin, positional cloning, transcriptomics, type 2 diabetes, β-cell loss
Subjects: A300 Clinical Medicine
C400 Genetics
C700 Molecular Biology, Biophysics and Biochemistry
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Applied Sciences
Depositing User: Rachel Branson
Date Deposited: 16 Sep 2022 14:11
Last Modified: 16 Sep 2022 14:15

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