Prospects and challenges of numerical modeling of the Sun at millimeter wavelengths

Wedemeyer, Sven, Fleishman, Gregory, de la Cruz Rodríguez, Jaime, Gunár, Stanislav, da Silva Santos, João M., Antolin, Patrick, Guevara Gómez, Juan Camilo, Szydlarski, Mikolaj and Eklund, Henrik (2022) Prospects and challenges of numerical modeling of the Sun at millimeter wavelengths. Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, 9. p. 967878. ISSN 2296-987X

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The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) offers new diagnostic possibilities that complement other commonly used diagnostics for the study of the Sun. In particular, ALMA’s ability to serve as an essentially linear thermometer of the chromospheric gas at unprecedented spatial resolution at millimeter wavelengths and future polarization measurements has great diagnostic potential. Solar ALMA observations are therefore expected to contribute significantly to answering long-standing questions about the structure, dynamics, and energy balance of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. In this regard, current and future ALMA data are also important for constraining and further developing numerical models of the solar atmosphere, which in turn are often vital for the interpretation of observations. The latter is particularly important given the Sun’s highly intermittent and dynamic nature that involves a plethora of processes occurring over extended ranges in spatial and temporal scales. Realistic forward modeling of the Sun therefore requires time-dependent three-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamics that account for non-equilibrium effects and, typically as a separate step, detailed radiative transfer calculations, resulting in synthetic observables that can be compared to observations. Such artificial observations sometimes also account for instrumental and seeing effects, which, in addition to aiding the interpretation of observations, provide instructive tools for designing and optimizing ALMA’s solar observing modes. In the other direction, ALMA data in combination with other simultaneous observations enable the reconstruction of the solar atmospheric structure via data inversion techniques. This article highlights central aspects of the impact of ALMA for numerical modeling of the Sun and their potential and challenges, together with selected examples.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: MS, JG, and SW were supported by the SolarALMA project, which received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 682462), and by the Research Council of Norway through its Centers of Excellence scheme, project number 262622. GF was supported in part by NSF grants AGS-2121632, AST-2206424, and AST-1820613, and NASA grants 80NSSC20K0718, and 80NSSC23K0090 to New Jersey Institute of Technology. SG acknowledges the support from grant No. 19-16890S of the Czech Science Foundation (GA ČR) and from project RVO:67985815 of the Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences. PA acknowledges funding from the STFC Ernest Rutherford Fellowship (No. ST/R004285/2). HE was supported through the CHROMATIC project(2016.0019)funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. This project received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (SUNMAG, grant agreement 759548). The Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by the Institute for Solar Physics of Stockholm University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. The Institute for Solar Physics was supported by a grant for research infrastructures of national importance from the Swedish Research Council (registration number 202100169).
Uncontrolled Keywords: radio radiation, atmosphere, magnetic fields, radiative transfer, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), millimeter and submillimeter astronomy, solar physics, chromosphere and corona
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: John Coen
Date Deposited: 02 Dec 2022 12:31
Last Modified: 02 Dec 2022 12:45

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