Cognition and Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Monaghan, AS, Gordon, Elaine, Graham, Lisa, Hughes, Elyse, Peterson, DS and Morris, Rosie (2023) Cognition and Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 147. p. 105068. ISSN 0149-7634

1-s2.0-S0149763423000374-main.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives 4.0.

Download (1MB) | Preview
Official URL:


Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and disabling symptom in people with Parkinson's Disease (PwPD). Although cognition is thought to be worse in PwPD who freeze, a comprehensive analysis of this relationship will inform future research and clinical care. This systematic review and meta-analysis compared cognition between PwPD who do and do not exhibit FOG across a range of cognitive domains and assessed the impact of disease severity and medication status on this relationship. 145 papers (n=9010 participants) were included in the analysis, with 144 and 138 articles meeting the criteria to assess moderating effects of disease severity and medication status, respectively. PwPD who freeze exhibited worse cognition than PwPD without FOG across global cognition, executive function/attention, language, memory, and visuospatial domains. Greater disease severity and "ON" levodopa medication status moderated the FOG status-cognition relationship in global cognitive performance but not in other cognitive domains. This meta-analysis confirmed that cognition is worse in PwPD with FOG and highlights the importance of disease severity and medication status in this relationship.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Parkinson's disease, cognition, freezing of gait, non-freezers, people with Parkinson's Disease, cognitive impairment
Subjects: B900 Others in Subjects allied to Medicine
C600 Sports Science
C800 Psychology
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Social Work, Education and Community Wellbeing
Depositing User: John Coen
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2023 10:50
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2024 03:56

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics