Real-Time Gait Phase Detection on Wearable Devices for Real-World Free-Living Gait

Wu, Jiaen, Becsek, Barna, Schaer, Alessandro, Maurenbrecher, Henrik, Chatzipirpiridis, George, Ergeneman, Olgac, Pane, Salvador, Torun, Hamdi and Nelson, Bradley J. (2023) Real-Time Gait Phase Detection on Wearable Devices for Real-World Free-Living Gait. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, 27 (3). pp. 1295-1306. ISSN 2168-2194

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Detecting gait phases with wearables unobtrusively and reliably in real-time is important for clinical gait rehabilitation and early diagnosis of neurological diseases. Due to hardware limitations of microcontrollers in wearable devices (e.g., memory and computation power), reliable real-time gait phase detection on the microcontrollers remains a challenge, especially for long-term real-world free-living gait. In this work, a novel algorithm based on a reduced support vector machine (RSVM) and a finite state machine (FSM) is developed to address this. The RSVM is developed by exploiting the cascaded K-means clustering to reduce the model size and computation time of a standard SVM by 88% and a factor of 36, with only minor degradation in gait phase prediction accuracy of around 4%. For each gait phase prediction from the RSVM, the FSM is designed to validate the prediction and correct misclassifications. The developed algorithm is implemented on a microcontroller of a wearable device and its real-time (on the fly) classification performance is evaluated by twenty healthy subjects walking along a predefined real-world route with uncontrolled free-living gait. It shows a promising real-time performance with an accuracy of 91.51%, a sensitivity of 91.70%, and a specificity of 95.77%. The algorithm also demonstrates its robustness with varying walking conditions.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding information: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon Research and Innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 764977.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Real-time gait phase detection, embedded system algorithms, wearable sensors, gait rehabilitation, real-world free-living walking
Subjects: C600 Sports Science
G600 Software Engineering
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: John Coen
Date Deposited: 21 Feb 2023 08:30
Last Modified: 29 Mar 2023 14:15

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