Advances in design engineering and merits of electron transporting layers in perovskite solar cells

Pan, Han, Zhao, Xiaojuan, Gong, Xiu, Li, Hao, Ladi, Xiao Li, Huang, Wenchao, Ahmad, Shahzada, Ding, Liming, Shen, Yan, Wang, Mingkui and Fu, Richard (2020) Advances in design engineering and merits of electron transporting layers in perovskite solar cells. Materials Horizon, 7 (9). pp. 2276-2291. ISSN 2051-6347

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1039/D0MH00586J

Abstract

Metal-halide perovskite has become one of the most promising photovoltaic materials for thin-film solar-cell applications, mainly due to its exellent visible light capture capability, large diffusion coefficients and long diffusion lengths of charge carriers (both electrons and holes). The reported power conversion efficiency (PCE) of laboratory produced perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has exceed 25. However, this value was only achieved for devices of less than 0.1 cm2 dimensions, and decreases significantly with the increase in areas (for example, down to 11.6 for a device area of ~ 800 cm2, showing the issues with the scalability). In the PSCs devices, electron transport layer (ETL) has to perform two essential functions, which are related: (i) to collect and transfer charges after the injection of electrons from perovskite light harvester; and (ii) to block the backflow of holes, thus realizing effective charge separation and suppressing charge carrier recombination. However, there are several critical issues associated with the ETLs which limit the further development of the PSCs. For example, the experimentally obtained open-circuit voltages in PSCs are typically much lower compared to the theoretical voltage limit with their optical bandgaps between 1.59 and 1.63 eV. This is mainly attributed to inefficient charge transports in the PSCs due to inhomogeneous charge accumulation and serious interfacial recombination at the interfaces between the ETL and perovskite active layer. We scan recent developments of ETLs in the PSCs, and discuss design methodologies, mechanisms, processing and characterization of new types of ETLs. High power conversion efficiency with large open-circuit voltages/photo-currents could be achieved through designing of materials and microstructures of high-quality ETLs with a high electron mobility, high electrical conductivity and pinhole-free film morphology. It is crucial to balance the charge diffusion processes in the respective charge collective layers of the PSCs as the interfaces between the ETLs and perovskite along with their interfacial structures play key roles to achieve a new solid-state mesoscopic solar cell optimized open circuit voltage and output photocurrent.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: F300 Physics
F900 Others in Physical Sciences
G100 Mathematics
H800 Chemical, Process and Energy Engineering
H900 Others in Engineering
Department: Faculties > Engineering and Environment > Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Rachel Branson
Date Deposited: 07 Jul 2020 13:32
Last Modified: 17 Sep 2020 12:45
URI: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/43683

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