Insulin therapy and dietary adjustments to normalize glycemia and prevent nocturnal hypoglycemia after evening exercise in type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

Campbell, Matthew, Walker, Mark, Bracken, Richard, Turner, David, Stevenson, Emma, Gonzalez, Javier, Shaw, James and West, Dan (2015) Insulin therapy and dietary adjustments to normalize glycemia and prevent nocturnal hypoglycemia after evening exercise in type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, 3 (1). e000085-e000085. ISSN 2052-4897

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Introduction Evening-time exercise is a frequent cause of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes, fear of which deters participation in regular exercise. Recommendations for normalizing glycemia around exercise consist of prandial adjustments to bolus insulin therapy and food composition, but this carries only short-lasting protection from hypoglycemia. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the impact of a combined basal-bolus insulin dose reduction and carbohydrate feeding strategy on glycemia and metabolic parameters following evening exercise in type 1 diabetes.

Methods Ten male participants (glycated hemoglobin: 52.4±2.2 mmol/mol), treated with multiple daily injections, completed two randomized study-days, whereby administration of total daily basal insulin dose was unchanged (100%), or reduced by 20% (80%). Participants attended the laboratory at ∼08:00 h for a fasted blood sample, before returning in the evening. On arrival (∼17:00 h), participants consumed a carbohydrate meal and administered a 75% reduced rapid-acting insulin dose and 60 min later performed 45 min of treadmill running. At 60 min postexercise, participants consumed a low glycemic index (LGI) meal and administered a 50% reduced rapid-acting insulin dose, before returning home. At ∼23:00 h, participants consumed a LGI bedtime snack and returned to the laboratory the following morning (∼08:00 h) for a fasted blood sample. Venous blood samples were analyzed for glucose, glucoregulatory hormones, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α. Interstitial glucose was monitored for 24 h pre-exercise and postexercise.

Results Glycemia was similar until 6 h postexercise, with no hypoglycemic episodes. Beyond 6 h glucose levels fell during 100%, and nine participants experienced nocturnal hypoglycemia. Conversely, all participants during 80% were protected from nocturnal hypoglycemia, and remained protected for 24 h postexercise. All metabolic parameters were similar.

Conclusions Reducing basal insulin dose with reduced prandial bolus insulin and LGI carbohydrate feeding provides protection from hypoglycemia during and for 24 h following evening exercise. This strategy is not associated with hyperglycemia, or adverse metabolic disturbances.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: A300 Clinical Medicine
B400 Nutrition
C600 Sports Science
Department: Faculties > Health and Life Sciences > Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation
Depositing User: Ay Okpokam
Date Deposited: 10 Jul 2015 07:04
Last Modified: 17 Dec 2023 16:45

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